Group 12


A formation/foundation of a colony or a polis; the combination of several smaller communities to form a single larger community. Occurred between 230-200 BC.
Several ways to describe a synoikismos:
- Resettlement or reconstruction of a city devastated by war. e.g. Kytenion in Grecce 205BC
- Physical concentration of the population in a single city
- Purely political unification that allowed the population to continue living in a dispersed way, (this did not affect the pattern of settlement or the physical existence of the separate communities).
- Migration of citizens to the new city.


• Officials responsible for compiling or enacting legislation. "lawmakers"
• A decision by the popular assembly had to be submitted by the law's proponent ( eisagōgeús ) to a ‘tribunal of nomothetai
• Were appointed in Athens in 411/410 BC. In the period between 403 and 321 BC, the people in Athens tried to differentiate between nómoi (‘laws’) and psēphísmata (‘decrees’).
• New law codex had to be approved by a commission of nomothetai.
• The procedure in front of the nomothétai looked like a trial in which the previous law was defended against the claims of the new law which was presented.


- Temple of Athena built on the highest part of the Acropolis in Athens (built between 447-432 BC).
- Named after the 12m high, chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos by Pheidias.
- Built in the Doric order, and adorned with detailed architectural sculpture. e.g east pediment showed the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus, and in the west the contest of Athena & Poseidon for the patronage of Athens.
- The metopes showed mythical combats in high relief, e.g Lapiths vs Centaurs, Gods vs Giants, Greeks vs Amazons and possibly scenes from the Trojan war.
- On the frieze, to contrast to the mythological depictions on the metopes and pediments, Pheidias depicted the Great Panathenaia, a festival of the city in honour of the Goddess Athena.

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